COCOA TREE — THE CHOCOLATE TREE
HEAT, HUMIDITY AND SHADE
The cocoa tree is cultivated in plantations situated on both sides of the Equator, the band that encircles the globe between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn.
This delicate tree, with a trunk of around 20 cm in diameter, a height ranging between 3 and 8 metres, but exceeding 12 metres in the wild, grows in hot and humid climates, in semi-obscurity, in the shade of tall-growing plants and trees.
An altitude of 400 to 700 metres is needed for ideal growth and development. It bears simultaneously white flowers and fruit, which it shelters in its dense and tapered foliage.
The tree begins to flower after around 2 to 5 years, reaches its maturity after 12 years and continues to bear fruit for 30 years. One tree bears 50 000 to 100 000 flowers per year. Approximately one in 100 of these will be fertilised and become a fruit – the cocoa pod.
Oblong in shape, the cocoa pod is 15 to 25 cm in length. On the same tree, young pods can be yellow, green or almost violet in colour. Mature pods ready for harvest are also varied in colour. On the inside of the fruit, beneath a tough skin, is found a white pulp called the “mucilage” from which grains are extracted. These grains become almond-shaped beans (20 to 40 per pod).
It is these beans that contain the precious cocoa. One cocoa tree can produce between a kilogram and a kilogram and a half of beans per year.
The chocolate tree has conquered the whole world with the richness of its fruit.
From a word meaning “creole” in old Spanish, this species of cocoa tree gives the finest cocoa. Very aromatic, only slightly bitter and with a long-lasting flavour, this exceptional cocoa makes up only 5 to 10 % of the world’s production. It originates from Central and South America, in particular from Venezuela, Nicaragua, Mexico, Guatemala and Colombia, as well as the islands of Trinidad, Grenada and Jamaica.
Originating from upper Amazonia, this species gives the most common and the most robust cocoa, with a bitter flavour and an acidic aroma, often used in cocoa mixes. An exception is the “amenolado” variety of Forastero, delicate, fragrant, and cultivated in the Equator. The Forastero makes up 80% of the world’s cocoa production, due to the faster maturation of the trees and a greater amount of fruit. This is African cocoa par excellence, introduced to the Sao Tomé Island and also grown in Brazil, the West Indies and Central and Latin America.
The island of Trinidad gave its name to this cocoa species. Its story originated in Venezuela, “the land of chocolate”, from a natural hybrid of the Criollo and the Forastero. The Trinitario gives a fine cocoa rich in oil and represents 10 to 15 % of the world’s production. It is cultivated mainly in Central America, South America, Indonesia and Sri Lanka.
THE MAIN COCOA-PRODUCING COUNTRIES
Cocoa, often nicknamed «black gold», is mainly cultivated in West Africa, Latin America and Asia.
45 countries produce cocoa, and 8 of these countries are responsible for 90% of the world’s production, which is estimated to be 3 million tonnes a year and represents more than 4 billion dollars in sales figures.The 8 countries include the Ivory Coast, Ghana, Indonesia, Nigeria, Brazil, Cameroon, Ecuador and Malaysia. After sugar and coffee, cocoa occupies third place in the global market of raw food materials.
In the absence of a specialised industry, few of these countries process cocoa beans into chocolate themselves. After drying, the beans are transported to chocolate-processing plants in other countries.
The remaining 37 cocoa-producing countries represent only 10% of the world’s production. However, some of these countries distinguish themselves by the quality and the delicacy of their harvest.
Côte d’Ivoire — 39%
Côte d’Ivoire, where the production soars to 1 to 1.5 million tonnes of cocoa beans per year, is world’s largest producer of cocoa. Its cultivation directly sustains 700 000 growers of cocoa. The cocoa network, under State control, is privatised. With the industrialisation of the country, a part of the harvest started to be transformed into intermediary cocoa products (such as pastes). Thanks to its sweetness, its slight acidity and its traditional aroma, cocoa from Côte d’Ivoire is widely used by manufacturers all over the world. Today, the achievements accomplished by the whole cocoa network have led to the production of high quality cocoa.
Ghana — 18%
After a long time at the top of cocoa production, today Ghana is at second place. Most of the time, cocoa is cultivated on family farms of less than 10 hectares. The yield is poor on those farms where the trees have aged.
Originally, cocoa was produced in the east of the country. From 1940, production moved to the Brong Ahafo and Ashanti regions. Since the middle of the 1980s, production has been situated in the west of the country. Ghana produces an average of 500 000 tonnes of cocoa beans per year. Cocoa remains an important part of the country’s economy.
Nigeria — 6%
Nigeria produces approximately 200 000 tonnes of cocoa beans per year. The soil and the climate are favourable to cocoa cultivation, but there is a lack of land available for growing. Nigeria is in fourth place of world cocoa production. This position is due to the aging of the plantations, which are often more than 40 years old.
Cameroon — 5%
Cocoa is Cameroon’s main export crop. Cocoa production has stabilised since the 1960s. The plantations, with an average size of 3 hectares, are cultivated by a maximum of 3 employees to obtain a yield of 300 kg per hectare. Half of the plantations are more than 50 years old. The cocoa of Cameroon is especially sought after for the Trinitario variety. The country produces around 180 000 tonnes of cocoa beans per year.
CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA
Brazil — 5%
Brazil is the fifth producer of cocoa in the world with an annual production of 100,000 tons. The State of Bahia is the largest region of production of the country and has highly organized cocoa farms and one of the most advanced research centers in the world.
Ecuador — 3%
Currently the 7th largest producer of cocoa, after having been the largest during the second half of the 19th century until the beginning of the 20th, Ecuador produces 78 000 tonnes of cocoa per year. The average size of a cocoa plantation is around 5 hectares. A large part of Ecuadorian cocoa is cultivated by small farmers in the remote heights of the Esmeraldas. In 1997/1998, the plantations were considerably damaged by the cyclone El Niño.
ASIA AND OCEANIA
Indonesia — 13%
Following a spectacular growth and expansion of the cocoa plantations in the last 20 years, Indonesia has become the world’s third largest producer of cocoa. It is one of the Earth’s oldest cocoa-growing regions, after the Spanish introduced the Criollo cocoa tree in 1560.
Production was concentrated on the island of Java, until Sulawesi, Sumatra and Kalimantan islands also became large centres of production. The country produces approximately 430 000 tonnes of cocoa beans.
Malaysia — 1%
Here, cocoa cultivation is recent. Production started to blossom in the 1970s. Malaysia boasts an important cocoa processing industry. Its products, cocoa butter and cocoa powder, are made predominantly for exportation.
The cocoa tree is cultivated in both a communal and industrial manner.
Cocoa beans are harvested twice a year, in spring and autumn.
Each harvest lasts several months and requires thorough and extensive work on the part of the growers.
When the pod turns orange and makes a flat sound when tapped, it is ripe and harvest can begin.
The first step is to gently twist the stems of pods that are accessible by hand, whereas others are cut with a knife attached to a long handle.
The operation is very delicate as one must be careful not to damage the buds and flowers of the next harvest.
This initial handling of the pod should be done with great care because it can affect product quality. The fruits are gathered and opened on site or transported to a processing centre where fermentation will take place.
CRACKING THE POD
This step consists of cracking open the cocoa pod to release the beans, which are wrapped in a white pulp.
The first treatment after the harvest, fermentation rids the beans of their sweet pulp, reduces the bitterness and astringency of the seed and develops the precursors of the aroma. It results in a swelling of the bean and the appearance of a characteristic brown colour. The beans are placed in containers made of wood, rattan (a type of cane) or cement, allowing the removal of the fermentation broth, and are covered with banana leaves. They are brewed and aerated regularly to ensure uniform fermentation.
After fermentation, the beans still contain 60% moisture, which needs to be reduced to 7% to ensure conservation and transportation under optimal conditions. This is when the drying phase comes in. The beans are placed in full sun on large drying surfaces with the possibility of quick coverage in the case of rain. During the drying phase, an average of two weeks, the beans are sorted briefly to remove residual pulp or large foreign objects.
Timed and coordinated by the master roaster, roasting aims to develop the flavours of chocolate and to eliminate moisture.
This procedure consists of roasting cocoa beans in a roasting machine at a temperature of 120 ° to 140 ° for 20–30 minutes.
After cooling, the beans are transported to the crushing machine. The crusher reduces the beans into particles a few millimetres in size. The body of the bean is separated from its shell using a screen on which a stream of hot air is blown.
These crushed beans with their skins shed are called nibs.
The nibs are then finely ground between steel cylinders. Under the twin influence of grinding and heat, they turn into a liquid paste: cocoa mass or cocoa liquor. This paste consists of cocoa butter (natural cocoa fat) and a dry bean substance.
The paste is then refined to reduce its grading from 50 microns to 17 microns. When making milk chocolate, milk and sugar are added at this stage.
Conching eliminates all traces of residual moisture, removes undesirable aromas, disposes of excess acidity and bitterness, allows the complete diffusion of cocoa butter in the cocoa paste, releases aromas and obtains a soft and velvety paste.
Placed in large tanks called conches, the chocolate paste is maintained at a controlled temperature. This is one of the most important phases for the production of quality chocolate.
THE HISTORY OF CHOCOLATE
THE ORIGINAL CONSUMERS OF COCOA
The Olmec people (1500–400 BC), the oldest in Mesoamerica, were probably the first to cultivate cacao and therefore consume cacau (the predecessor of the word «cocoa». They passed the secrets of this foodstuff and its extraordinary virtues from generation to generation.
From the third century BC, the Mayans, living in the region of Guatemala and the Yucatan integrated cocoa farming into their ancient rites. They built numerous cities dominated by pyramidal temples dedicated to their gods, including El Chuah, the god of merchants and cacao. Mastering Mathematics and Astronomy, they developed a calendar system (Sacred cycle of 260 days), as well as hieroglyphic writing.
Initially, the men ate the flesh of the pod and the tangy beans, enjoying their refreshing properties. The pods also provided them with butter and a fermented liquid used as vinegar.
It was the Mayans who discovered that the dried and ground cocoa bean could be mixed with water, creating a drink they called «chacau haa» (hot water).
The beans were used as offerings in tombs of high officials, but also during everyday life events: births, engagements, weddings. The beans were also used as currency to settle small household debts and became units of reference for accounting. This use stimulated trade relations across Central America. Towards the end of the ninth century AD, the Mayan civilization disappeared.
From the tenth to twelfth centuries AD, the Toltecs ruled Mexico and in their capital, Tula, lived their mythical king Quetzalcoatl, a priest and bearer of the legend of «the feathered serpent».
At the end of the twelfth century, the Aztecs went south to conquer new territories. After two centuries of migration, in 1300 AD they reached the Valley of Mexico, where they founded the lakeside city of Tenochtitlan (now Mexico City).
The Aztecs continued using the beans as a currency to be payed as tax by the conquered people…
With one bean you could buy a tomato, with three, an avocado, with four, a pumpkin, with ten, a rabbit. For a slave or a nice turkey, you need a hundred beans.
The Mayan » cacau » became the Aztec » cacahuatl «, and then xoxolate.
The beans, once dried in the sun, were roasted at a low heat in earthenware pots, and then removed from their shells. They were then crushed on a grinding stone, called metate, using a roller, the métlapilli.
To prepare the Xocoalt (chocolate), cocoa powder was diluted in water and mixed with a corn porridge called atolle. The wealthiest Aztecs added hot peppers, spices, vanilla, annatto or axiotl (red coloring), and sometimes honey and flowers (especially hueinacaztli or » ear flower «.
The Aztecs, like the Mayans eight centuries earlier, poured the brew from one container to another to cause foaming, embraced by the people as the «Spirit of cocoa», considered to bring them closer to the Gods. The divine drink was served in decorated gourds called Xicalli or in turtle shells.
Chocolate was reserved for the elite — the clergy, nobility, warriors and great merchants — and played a crucial role in religious rituals, but also in ceremonies, festivals and banquets, where it was served after the meal.
In the court of the Aztec Emperor Moctezuma, more than fifty jars of frothy cocoa, presented in cups of fine gold, could be served by women in the course of one banquet. Up to 640 cups of cocoa were consumed in one day.
In addition, more than 960 million beans were stored in the imperial reserves.
For the «Xocoalt» to become «chocolate», it took for the «conquistadores» to conquer the continents of the New World in search of «a famous metal». They would of course bring back gold, but they would also load their caravel boats with a hitherto unknown «brown gold»- cocoa.
The first European encounter with cocoa was in July 1502 during the fourth voyage of Christopher Columbus. Off the island of Guanaja, a boat approached the caravel, and the natives offered an assortment of products they were carrying, in particular, unfamiliar brown seeds and a curious drink. Nobody understood the value of this, and thus the first contact with cocoa was dismissed as inconsequential.
Seventeen years later, in 1519, Hernan Cortez landed in eastern Mexico on the coast of Tabasco with 700 men, 16 horses and 11 boats. He was welcomed as a god and allowed himself to be showered with gifts by the Aztecs, who believed that the prophecy of Quetzalcoatl had been fulfilled and the feathered serpent had returned. In 1524, King Charles V received from Cortez a cargo of cane sugar and cocoa beans. The king saw it as a mere botanical curiosity although the Spanish conquerors had by that stage already become involved in cocoa farming and had even collected some benefits.
On his return to Spain in 1528, Cortez brought from Mexico beans and utensils for manufacturing chocolate, including the reel, which froths and degreases the brew before drinking. He recounted to Charles V that a cup of chocolate prepared by the Aztecs augmented the body’s resistance and decreased fatigue. The recipe was transformed by nuns, who added the famous sugar cane, and later cinnamon or vanilla.
The liquid chocolate drink became very popular with Spaniards and soon, the Spanish colonists tried to increase cocoa yields by expanding the areas of cocoa plantations using local manpower.
Spain was able to acquire a monopoly of trade in beans and take control of a part of the New World. From then on, people began to drink chocolate everywhere and at any time. Upper-class ladies would even bring it to church. In 1680, the word «chocolate» appeared in the dictionary.
CHOCOLATE AND THE ROYAL COURT
The Court of Spain would be the first to serve chocolate to its members. Until the eighteenth century, the ancient «Drink of the Gods» remained the preserve of nobles and clerics. It would be the merchants and travellers who would assist in the discovery of chocolate across the whole of Europe. Even Pope Pius V declared that drinking chocolate does not break the fast and soon all of Europe became infatuated with this new beverage. In France, in 1615, it was during the wedding of Louis XIII to Anne of Austria, daughter of Philip III of Spain, that chocolate was introduced to the Court. Until the seventeenth century, chocolate was only consumed in beverage form.
Around 1660, Maria Theresa of Austria, wife of Louis XIV, the new Queen of France was quick to share her passion for chocolate at the Court of Versailles. David Chaillou, originally from Toulouse, was the first chocolate manufacturer of France, and obtained from King Louis XIV the exclusive privilege of manufacturing, selling and issuing «chocolate» as drinks or lozenges, in his shop on Rue de l’Arbre Sec in Paris.
Meanwhile, in London, the first «Chocolate Houses» were being launched by a Frenchman who popularized chocolate in 1655 and immediately started stocking it behind the counters of bars and pubs.
In 1674 the first eating chocolate, «Spanish chocolate puddings», was born. Chocolate makers became fashionable, and their presence was essential during chocolate degustation. Chocolate soon became synonymous with refinement. For example, Madame de Maintenon and Ninon de l’Enclos, who first offered chocolate to Voltaire, were chocolate’s devoted admirers, taking great pleasure from consuming as well as sharing chocolate. When it was learned that chocolate might have aphrodisiac properties, the demand for cocoa intensified. In 1768, the Marquis de Sade encountered a few problems for having ordered some fancy chocolate candies poisoned with Spanish Fly! Casanova believed that chocolate improved the prowess of love-making. Much more than champagne, chocolate inspired real passion. He devoured chocolate in all its forms.
The favourites of Louis XV, Madame de Pompadour and Madame Dubarry, were also fanatical about chocolate. Chocolate thus became a sign of aristocracy but also a certain libertinism. Marie Antoinette, known for her gourmet tastes, arrived at the court of Louis XVI accompanied by her personal chocolate maker, who each morning brought her chocolate elixir flavoured with amber and vanilla.
At the beginning of the 17th century, the regent Philippe d’Orleans enjoyed some chocolate every morning at sunrise while receiving his courtiers. Later, this would give rise to the French expression «to be received to chocolate», meaning to receive a great favour from the Royal Court. Later, after the French Revolution, the Industrial Revolution saw the democratization of the chocolate, which began to be consumed in new ways.
THE INDUSTRIAL ERA
Thanks to several revolutionary inventions, the production of chocolate was modernised and chocolate became widely available in the late 18th century. In 1778, the English geologist Joseph Townsend had the idea to use hydraulic energy to grind the beans. This invention, approved by the Faculty of Medicine, was the first major step in mass chocolate manufacture. This machine, the brainchild of a visionary, would increase the volume of cocoa processed during the crushing and grinding stage.
In 1811, a French engineer named Poincelet would develop the first type of blender of cocoa beans. This principle would soon be adopted by all of Europe.
The steel industry helped produce malleable iron plates resistant to stretching. In 1825, Felix Gum developed the pendulum press that would revolutionize the manufacture of chocolate.
The casting and moulding industry flourished in the 19th century. In 1832, the first casts appeared, with the advent of mechanical grinder that gave chocolate a very fine texture. The casts were used to produce three-dimensional images in chocolate, and were first cast of silver or pewter, and then copper- or silver-plated and or made of stainless steel. These images reflect the imagination of engravers and metalworkers — anonymous for the most part — better known as the houses of Pinat, Cadot and especially Letang, who have transformed the way we look at chocolate today.
From these inventions followed a rapid chocolate evolution. In 1819, Cailler founded the first chocolate factory in Switzerland. He was closely followed by Suchard and Tobler Kholer.
But the greatest invention would probably be in 1828, when the Dutch pharmacist Van Houten invented the cocoa skimming press, and obtained cocoa powder, which was best suited for the preparation of drinking chocolate. He also managed to separate the various components of cocoa.
— In 1842, the Englishman Charles Barry moved to Meulan and created the famous «Cocoa Barry» powder.
— In 1847, the House of Fry in England’s moulded the first chocolate block.
— In 1862, Victor Auguste Poulain moved to Blois.
— In 1867, Henri Nestlé invented powdered milk.
— In 1875, the Swiss Daniel Peter added Henri Nestlé powdered milk to chocolate.
— In 1879, Rodolphe Lindt perfected the process of conching. This process helps to refine the flavour and gives chocolate that melt-in-the-mouth texture.
By the end of the 19th century, the chocolate industry was progressing well in all European countries.
Then Weiss moved to Saint-Etienne in France in 1882, Valrhona to Tain l’Hermitage in 1924 and Michel Cluizel to Damville in 1948. The acceleration of the industry during the 20th century would see the pioneers of Western countries become multinational groups.
THE PIONEERS OF CHOCOLATE
Sulpice Debauve and Antoine Gallais established the oldest chocolate factory in Paris in 1800. At the beginning of the 19th century, Jean-Antoine Brutus Menier, pharmacist’s assistant, bought a small chocolate factory, which became an empire thanks to his son Emile-Justin. Victor-Auguste Poulain established his chocolate factory in Blois in 1848.
Jean Neuhaus founded Neuhaus-Perrin confectionary and chocolate factory in 1895. His grandson would later invent praline. The Jacques chocolate factory, founded in 1986 by Antoine Jacques, manufactured chocolate, confection and gingerbread. Jean Galler founded his business in 1909 near Brussels. Subsequently, in 1911, Léonidas Kestekides, confectioner, established the house of Léonidas, which currently has 1650 points of sale around the world. Callebaut set up shop near Liège after the First World War.
Stollwerck established the biggest chocolate factory in the world in Koln in 1860.
John Cadbury established a housing development for workers of his factory on Bull Street, Birmingham, in 1824. In 1842, Englishman Charles Barry created Barry powdered cocoa. In 1860, Joseph Fry put in place a method allowing cocoa butter to be reincorporated into cocoa mass. In 1920, John Mars launched the famous chocolate bar that carries his name.
In Genoa, the House of Romanegro rose again in 1780. In 1865, the house of Caffarel in Turin invented gianduja chocolate. Pietro Ferrero established the Ferrero society in Alba in the north of Italy in 1946.
In 1832, Franz Sacher created the most famous chocolate torte in Europe: the Sachertorte.
Coenraad Van Houten created powdered chocolate in 1828.
In 1883, Milton Hershey bought German machines he saw being exposed in Chicago. He created a chocolate bar that was launched in 1894 and founded his factory in 1903.
In the early nineteenth century, chocolate makers, knowing children’s love of sweets, inserted pictures or images in their chocolate bars in order to secure the loyalty of their young customers. These gifts were in the form of black and white photographs, stamp collections, key holders, cut-outs or educational pictures or stickers to stick in albums. The images were personalized by the major chocolate brands and were given to well-behaved children to decorate their books and notebooks.
Taking advantage of the industrial revolution, chocolate makers wanted to make chocolate a mass product with a large number of consumers. Thus, they started to put in place chocolate distributors, and to display advertising signs and cardboard versions of their products in order to creatively promote their brands.
These were soon replaced by colourful enamel plaques, which were more durable and could be exhibited outside of stores.
In the early twentieth century, advertising broadened its product range: lithographed boxes, paper blotters and notebook protectors commonly used by schoolkids.
One of the most famous advertisments was that of powdered chocolate praised by a convalescing Senegalese soldier, who exclaimed «It’s good, Banania!» And who could forget the ad of Bouisset Firmin in 1893, featuring a little girl writing «Beware of cheap imitations» on a wall, an image that will forever be tied to Menier.
The second half of the nineteenth century was marked by great illustrators such as Mucha, Grebault and Carrey who contributed their talents to chocolate. For example, in 1905, Cappiello designed a poster depicting a gambolling young foal, which has since become the emblem of the brand Poulain.
A WORLD OF TASTES
London was the birthplace of solid chocolate, invented in 1674. To the English, we also owe the first clubs for chocolate enthusiasts and especially, the development of the first chocolate bar in 1847.
The British are the sixth consumers of chocolate in the world with an average of 7.6 kg consumed per person per year. They especially appreciate very sweet milk chocolate (they go through 70% of the bars sold in Europe), and prepare a special chocolate powder with caramelised flavour called the «crumb».
They also appreciate spices (chocolate blocks flavoured with cardamom, ginger, pink pepper) and candied fruit (such as the traditional rhubarb pudding).
At the first communion meal, it is traditional to offer guests a cup of hot chocolate accompanied by bread and butter.
It is also served at breakfast or in a specially made West Indian punch by to accompany ice cream or a good cup of coffee.
AUSTRIA AND GERMANY
Austria gave us a great innovation in pastry- the first recipe for chocolate cake, prepared in 1778.
Austria is therefore at the source of three famous recipes:
— The Sacher Torte: Chocolate gâteau filled with a thin layer of apricot jam and iced with chocolate fondant
— The Imperial Torte: A square composed of thin alternating layers of milk chocolate and almond paste
— The Black Forest: A German classic, made with chocolate, whipped cream, cherries and kirsch.
The Austrians and Germans are also great lovers of chocolate itself, especially chocolate with milk and sugar, which they consume in small bars or individually purchased bite-sized pieces.
The Germans are particularly keen on thick, creamy and very sweet chocolate.
The Belgians particularly love chocolate that is dense in texture, enriched with cream and butter. They consume 8.4 kg of chocolate per year per capita. It is to Belgium that we owe the invention of the praline in 1912, then the box of chocolates in 1915. Belgian pralines are produced in enormous quantities. Today, there is a revival of the » authentic taste » in Belgium and chocolatiers are not shy to manufacture and market 70% cocoa chocolate!
The Spaniards, loyal to their traditions and their status as discoverers of chocolate, have a passion for chocolate drinks and spreads.
94% of French people consume chocolate. 70% of people eat chocolate at least once a week. A third of French people are real » chocoholics» and treat themselves at least once a day. Regular users tend to be men, people aged 18 and 34, and executives. However, housewives, students and junior employees are also avid consumers: chocolate is a popular product. 41% of people eat chocolate alone, 34% with their spouse and 33% with their children. 63% of children aged 4 to 10 years consume a chocolate drink for breakfast and 19% for snacks.
As for the nature of products, chocolate blocks outweigh all others in the current consumption (45%) , followed closely by chocolate bars (35%), up 180% in 10 years, while sweets and bonbons available in boxes or as gifts, are still a minority(17%).
Dark chocolate with high cocoa content (the French like it more and more bitter), sometimes mixed with hazelnuts or almonds, has become a gourmet product. Milk chocolate, which remains the most popular, also advertises the origin of its beans!
The Italians have a more sensual relationship with chocolate and even consider it an aphrodisiac. With the famous chocolate figurines «Gianduja» and the «Nudes», they combine chocolate and sensuality.
They are Europe’s biggest fans of bitter chocolate, which is often made with hazelnuts or liqueur.
But best-selling Italian chocolate in the world is the little praline Ferrero Rocher. With the bite-sized Mon Cheri and the Nutella chocolate spread, this brand alone is worth 6% of the European market.
As for traditional Tartufo iced truffles, and Baci, chocolate «kisses» filled with cherry or hazelnut, half a billion units are shipped out worldwide every day.
Finally, Neapolitans, these little squares of happiness served with coffee, can now be enjoyed almost everywhere.
In the Nordic countries, chocolate is a staple and everyday food item which does not necessarily signify a festive occasion.
Known for its restorative qualities and energy content, chocolate is the ideal food for the Danes, Swedes and the Finns who want to warm up in the severe Northern winters!
The main contribution of Holland to the art of chocolate stems back to Van Houten, who invented and patented the cocoa powder in 1828. The famous yellow Van Houten box, containing «monk’s robes»-coloured powder and full-bodied flavour, is accessible and enables a democratization of hot chocolate hitherto reserved for the wealthy classes.
Therefore Holland, specialising in cocoa powder, is now particularly known for its solid chocolate. Preferring quality over fancy designs, the Dutch especially enjoy dark and bitter chocolate high in pure cocoa powder, such as Droste pastilles.
With an annual per capita consumption of 9.4 kg, the Swiss are leading European chocolate charts.
World-renowned for their milk chocolate, they prefer a sweet, creamy flavour, with both bitter and sweet notes.
Switzerland, although it discovered chocolate rather late, is the birthplace of important technical inventions and innovations in three recipes: hazelnut chocolate, milk chocolate and melting chocolate. Milk chocolate and white chocolate especially gave Switzerland its worldwide reputation.
THE UNITED STATES
The flavours reflect the image of America as the melting pot of culinary traditions. The most popular chocolate among consumers is strong and grainy variety. Chocolate bars and chocolate chip cookies are universally loved.
The Americans have also coined a term to describe the dependence chocolate — «chocoholic». Chocolatiers come up with daring ideas: chocolate masks in the likeness of current celebrities and chocolate greeting cards.
Brazil is the fourth largest consumer of chocolate and the fifth producer of cocoa. Brazilians love chocolate and their consumption has been expanding in the past few years.
While half the world drinks coffee, Mexicans are fond of chocolate for breakfast.
Although Mexicans are very familiar with hot cocoa, they also created a great stir in the kitchen by inventing a chilli cocoa sauce to enhance chicken and turkey. A culinary classic of this country.
In Japan, chocolate has only been around for a century, by comparison with more than four centuries in Europe. This probably explains its late peak late in the land of sushi and kimonos.
Regular consumers of chocolate are mostly children and women between 20–30 years old. It is a product that is found mainly in supermarkets (45%) and its consumption which varies depending on the weather and timing.
Thus, the demand for chocolate is particularly great around Valentine’s Day, because tradition dictates that women give chocolate to men. 80% of imported chocolates are intended to be sold for the lovers’ celebration, as well as White Day (March 14).
The Japanese love creamy chocolate that melts in the mouth, especially milk chocolate. They tend to choose their chocolate by the type of milk used rather than the source of cocoa.
As yet, the demand for dark and bitter chocolate is low- the consumption of dark chocolate is only 10% of the total consumption. However, the Japanese begin to appreciate dessert products — more and more restaurants now offer desserts — especially chocolate — which reflects a real change in consumer habits.
The current range is primarily composed of bars and bite-sized sweets. For gifts, the Japanese choose premium artisanal chocolate — in a beautifully-wrapped box!
The Japanese are also adventurous when it comes to chocolate! The White House, the Eiffel Tower and even the Venus de Milo can be eaten in chocolate versions. Love to give? Gifts often hide in chocolate packages: a cruise, a plane ticket, a ring or other, even more unusual items.
THE CONSUMPTION OF CHOCOLATE
CHIFFRES-CLÉS 2010 DES INDUSTRIES DE LA CHOCOLATERIE
LE MARCHÉ FRANÇAIS DES INDUSTRIES DE LA CHOCOLATERIE (1)
(1) Total des ventes France des entreprises du secteur = fabricants-exportations+importations validées au 31/03 de chaque année.
Source: Syndicat du Chocolat d’après enquête auprès des adhérents et non adhérents
(2) Panel NIELSEN
LES CATÉGORIES DE PRODUITS (1) (EN TONNAGE)
(1) Total des ventes France des entreprises du secteur = fabrications-exportations+importations (d’après enquête auprès des adhérents et non adhérents)
Les modes de distribution se répartissent environ comme suit:
— 85% en grandes surfaces
— 15% en boulangeries, détaillants spécialisés, stations-service, kiosques, etc…
Source: Syndicat du Chocolat
LA CONSOMMATION MOYENNE EN FRANCE
— Enfants: 11,9 g/ jour
— Adultes: 5,7 g / jour
Source: Traitement Crédoc, base INCA2 (AFSSA) octobre 2008
L’industrie française de la chocolaterie représente près de 70 entreprises dont 90% de PME, elle emploie plus de 11 600 salariés et participe à l’activité économique de toutes les régions françaises. Elle comprend:
> des groupes de taille internationale: CADBURY, CARGILL, CEMOI, FERRERO, KRAFT FOODS, LINDT, MARS, NATRAZAHOR, NESTLE, OCG (plus de 85% du marché).
> près d’une cinquantaine de PME: CFCC, CLUIZEL, MONBANA, REVILLON, VALRHONA…
… et une présence active d’artisans
LA CONSOMMATION DANS L’UNION EUROPÉENNE
Ratio production nationale+importations-exportations sur population en kg en 2009
IN EVERY SHAPE AND FORM
No other food takes on as many different forms, transforming itself according to our needs. There is a chocolate for every occasion: bite-sized treats, bars and blocks, discs of ganache, praline eggs… chocolate lends itself to the most subtle and heavenly alchemy, for all to enjoy. Both a consumer product that is eaten at any time of day and a delicacy that has earned its place in haute cuisine, chocolate reaches a wide audience, regardless of age, gender or class.
Among the creations made with chocolate, especially popular are desserts- mousses, soufflés, cakes, candies and sweets- as well as savoury chocolate dishes and chocolate-flavoured drinks and cocktails.
TIPS AND HINTS FROM CHEFS
Whatever the manner used, in a bain-marie, oven, microwave, or in a pan, chocolate should never be overheated when it is melted. Remember that the melting temperature of cocoa butter is around 30°C. By heating chocolate too much, you greatly disrupt its structure, even if it is not obvious to the naked eye. Make sure that the container in which you melt is perfectly dry.
ADDING INGREDIENTS TO MELTED CHOCOLATE
Always start by adding butter or cream and only then egg yolks, when necessary.
Remember that chocolate is an emulsion and as such, it is very sensitive to water (even that contained in egg yolk) which can make the chocolate «compact» into an unusable tight ball.
STIRRING IN EGG WHITES BEATEN INTO A FOAM
Always minimise mixing time: The more you mix the preparation to incorporate the whites, the more they let out their micro-bubbles into the chocolate.
Using chocolate that is very finely grated, crushed or chopped accelerates the melting process and reduces the risk of lumps.
COOLING CHOCOLATE CAKE
Take it out of its mould while still hot to allow the water vapour to escape without softening the cake.
USING BITTER COCOA
Always take the time to sift cocoa through a fine strainer because it tends to settle and agglomerate into small lumps during storage.
RULES FOR CHOCOLATE STORAGE
BARS AND BLOCKS
Chocolate does not like temperature changes, heat, extreme cold, light or moisture. Knowing this, find the ideal place for it in your home. Well preserved, it is does not spoil and can be kept for many months. Once opened, wrap well in foil and store in an airtight container.
Rich in fatty matter, mousses are cursed with absorbing the flavours and smells around them. Once prepared, cover them tightly with plastic wrap so that they are not in contact with the outside.
As for mousse, keep truffles in an airtight container to prevent them from absorbing surrounding flavours.
To better preserve a cake, never let it cool in its mould. Instead, remove it from the mould once cooking has finished and cool on a wire rack. When cooled, cover tightly with foil and plastic wrap.
Bitter cocoa powders are very sensitive to changes in humidity. As they are very dry, they cant rap humidity and form into lumps. Place the cocoa pack in an airtight container and store away from sources of moisture.
SOME CHOCOLATY COMBINATIONS
Who said chocolate doesn’t go with anything? In terms of flavour, with the advent of aromatised and spiced chocolate, novel and more refined flavour combinations are emerging. Coffee, wine — chocolate has found some worthy partners. In cocktails or savoury dishes, chocolate is now found at all the right tables, where it continues to delight modern palates.
COFFEE AND CHOCOLATE: A SACRED UNION
Biting into coffee beans while sipping hot chocolate, enjoying a piece of chocolate with your steaming hot coffee. A splash of strong coffee in your chocolate mousse. A few drops of coffee liqueur in a chocolate cream pie. A traditional coffee-flavoured tiramisu powdered with cocoa. In desserts, these sister flavours, with their seeds and pods in matching colours, have been united for a long time. Chocolate or coffee? Coffee or chocolate? Both are prepared, melted and combined in a subtle blend of flavours.
Actually, coffee and chocolate have a similar history and botanical make-up.
There is no better way to speak of the association of coffee and chocolate than to evoke the care afforded to their respective preparations. In sub-tropical climates, appropriate fermentation and special drying processes are vital. This is followed by very careful selection of the rarest grains and a slow roasting process that provides the ultimate touch and reveals the depth, quality and finesse of the aromas.
The wonderful aromatic combination of chocolate and coffee can be found naturally in some vintages. How wonderful to discover a hint of chocolate aroma in the woody notes of Indonesia’s Java, in the gentle aroma of a fine Yrgacheffe of Ethiopia, in the magnificent fragrances of Papua New Guinean Tagari? Bite into a chocolate and the cocoa fragrance, discerned over the dried fruit of Brazilian Mogiana or Sul do Minas, will be revealed in all its glory!
WINE AND CHOCOLATE: THE SECRETS OF A COMPLICATED RELATIONSHIP
Many think that the combination of wine and chocolate is impossible, or is limited to port wine.
Indeed, with age, the flavours of port transform and take notes of prunes and raisins, as well as cocoa, coffee and the aroma of roasting. This type of fortified or dessert wine would naturally attract the chocolate lover.
But in France, for example, there are naturally sweet wines, similar to port, such as the Maury, which comes from the grenache vintage and is aged in glass cylinders. And there is of course the Maydie, a Tannat wine developed from the liqueur of the Aydie estate in the Madiran territory of the south-west.
In general, choose mature wines that contain roasting aromas: for example, the Maury, aged for 20 years, aged Banyuls (20–30 years) or aged Rivesaltes.
Some chocolates also marry perfectly with certain wines. Indeed, the proliferation of chocolates flavoured with fresh fruits, herbs and spices has encouraged the creation of several new wine-chocolate combinations.
A dark chocolate with candied ginger may, for example, go very well with an ice wine, while a dark chocolate with a little orange is the perfect accompaniment to an Italian raisin Muscat. Dark chocolate rich in cocoa (70%) will balance perfectly with an excellent Spanish Pedro Ximenez. For those who prefer caramel chocolate, the addition of an aged, slightly caramelised Madeira could result in the perfect union. To fully appreciate the alliance of wine and chocolate, use wine glasses designed specifically for wines like Muscat, Pedro Ximenez or Ice wine.
CHOCOLATE- COCKTAIL’S PARTNER IN CRIME
Dark chocolate liqueur, white or dark crème de cacao, chocolate ice-cream, chocolate chips, and even chocolate powder — all delicious ingredients to shake-up an original cocktail!
Playing with its creaminess, aroma, colour and unique taste, bartenders, the inventors of cocktail recipes, blend chocolate into countless recipes for vodka-, whiskey-, coffee liqueur- or rum-based cocktails.
The most popular cocktail is the «Alexander» and its many variations. This cocktail was invented in 1910 in New York and was described for the first time in Hugo Ensslin’s book of recipes in 1915: gin, white crème de cacao and cream. Many books about cocktails tell elaborate stories about the origins of the «Alexander,» but the truth is that the creator, the place and the context remain a mystery…
The «Brandy Alexander,» meanwhile, has become very popular since its invention 28 February 1922 in London, at the wedding of Princess Victoria Alexandra Alice Mary and Earl Henry George Charles Lascelles. Based on the «Alexander», gin is replaced by Cognac and dark crème de cacao brown replaces its white counterpart. The recipe became very popular in underground bars during prohibition.
Later, in 1950, three authors of several books on cocktails renamed the Brandy Alexander just Alexandra, in a tribute to the princess whose wedding gave rise to the cocktail. The Alexandra- Cognac, dark crème de cacao and cream, was the favourite drink of John Lennon, Ringo Starr and Harry Nilsson. John Lennon drank it like a milkshake… For the Amaretto Alexander, amaretto, cream and chocolate melted in hot milk were shaken, not stirred!
Chocolate punch combined whipped cream, coffee liqueur, sugar, instant coffee and chocolate powder with an exotic touch of cinnamon.
GOURMET SELECTION OF CHOCOLATE-BASED ALCOHOLIC COCKTAILS
Enjoy responsibly- alcohol abuse is dangerous for health.
— Chocolate Soldier: Crème de cacao liqueur, dry vermouth, orange bitters and brandy.
— Abyssinia: Dark crème de cacao, cognac, grapefruit juice.
— Klimt Special: Champagne, Dark Crème de cacao, rum, vodka, Angostura bitters.
— Chocolate Flip: Crème de cacao liqueur, port, egg yolk, sugar and cinnamon.
— ASAP: White crème de cacao, mandarin vodka, whipped dairy cream.
— Deaf Knees: Chocolate cream, Grand Marnier, crème de menthe.
— Chocolate Vice: Dark rum, whiskey (bourbon), Dark crème de cacao, chocolate milk, whipped cream.
— Chocolate Monk: Kahlua (coffee liqueur), Bailey’s Irish Cream (cream of whiskey), Frangelico (hazelnut liqueur).
— Absolute Trappy Tea: Dark crème de cacao, mandarin vodka, tea, lemon juice.
— Ninja: Dark crème de cacao, Frangelico, Midori (melon liqueur).
— Chocolate Martini: Dark chocolate liqueur, dark crème de cacao, vodka, light cream.
— Milky Way Martini: Dark chocolate liqueur, Baileys Irish Cream, vanilla vodka.
— Little Pampering: White chocolate liqueur, gin, amaretto, cherry cream.
— Dirty Banana: Dark rum, bourbon, dark crème de cacao, chocolate milk and whipped cream.
— German Chocolate Cake: Malibu, white crème de cacao, Frangelico, light dairy cream.
— Red Lady: White chocolate liqueur, strawberry liqueur, brandy, condensed milk.
— Golden Cadillac: White crème de cacao, Galliano (vanilla liqueur), light dairy cream.
SAVOURY CHOCOLATE: A GOURMET ALLIANCE
The combination of chocolate in savoury dishes is a sumptuous example of French palates starting to appreciate sweet and savoury combinations. However, this tendency is not new in French gastronomy. For a long time, chefs have added chocolate to their savoury dishes. For example, a square of chocolate added to Grand Veneur game sauce gives it a silky feel, whereas coq au vin with a few squares of chocolate added at the very end becomes smoother and richer. It’s the little secret of the Cordons Bleus.
Constantly looking for new and exotic flavours, French chefs have introduced cocoa as the new spice to season meats, poultry, seafood and cheeses…
CHOCOLATE AND HEALTH
AN INVIGORATING AND STIMULATING NATURAL ANTI-DEPRESSANT
Without doubt, chocolate is a pleasure food.
A 100-gram block of chocolate contains around 500 calories.
Chocolate contains three types of organic materials — carbohydrates, lipids and proteins — as well as several minerals: potassium, magnesium and phosphorus in large quantities, calcium, iron and sodium in small quantities.
In addition to the many vitamins it contains (A1, B1, B2…), the analysis of a chocolate bar reveals the presence of several substances with tonic, stimulant, and anti-depressant properties:
— Theobromine, which stimulates the nervous system and facilitates muscular exertion
— Caffeine, which increases resistance to fatigue
— Phenylethylamine, which exhibits psychostimulant properties,
— Serotonin, which can compensate the loss of certain nerve cells in depression
The percentage of protein remains relatively constant regardless of the variety of chocolate (between 7 and 10%). By contrast, the proportions of carbohydrate and fat change depending on chocolate type. A chocolate bar contains more carbohydrate than melting chocolate (64% versus 52%) and, conversely, less fat (24% versus 38%).
Among all the food we consume, chocolate is also the richest in polyphenols. The levels are 500 and 840 mg/100 g in milk and dark chocolate respectively. About 13% of polyphenols in our diet come from chocolate.
Many researchers now believe that polyphenols have beneficial effects on health by reducing the oxidative stress that our tissues are constantly subjected to, thereby reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer and other chronic diseases.
CHOCOLATE AND THE FIGURE
Chocolate is not more fattening than other foods: in reality, it depends on what you eat before and after. Its consumption must be a part of an overall balanced diet. A few sweets or a few squares of chocolate may integrate very well into our daily diet, without consequences on our body weight.
However, an excessive consumption can of course lead to weight gain. Indeed, although cocoa itself is not very high in calories, it is the cocoa butter and sugar that contribute to chocolate’s caloric value.
CHOCOLATE AND CHOLESTEROL
It is a false belief that the chocolate has an impact on cholesterol. Cocoa, without milk, does not contain cholesterol. In addition, it has been proven that «its fat lowers total cholesterol blood and increases the good cholesterol that protects the arteries».
CHOCOLATE AND THE SKIN
Chocolate does not cause spots or blemishes. Acne is not particularly influenced by diet.
CHOCOLATE AND TEETH
Chocolate does not cause cavities. Indeed it is the contrary, provided it is not too sweet: the tannins, fluoride and phosphate chocolate contains protects teeth.